Querying Pinot
Learn how to query Pinot using SQL

DIALECT

Pinot uses Calcite SQL Parser to parse queries and uses MYSQL_ANSI dialect. You can see the grammar here.

Limitations

Pinot does not support Joins or nested Subqueries and we recommend using Presto for queries that span multiple tables. Read Engineering Full SQL support for Pinot at Uber for more info.
No DDL support. Tables can be created via the REST API.

Identifier vs Literal

In Pinot SQL:
Double quotes(") are used to force string identifiers, e.g. column name.
Single quotes(') are used to enclose string literals.
Mis-using those might cause unexpected query results:
E.g.
    WHERE a='b' means the predicate on the column a equals to a string literal value 'b'
    WHERE a="b" means the predicate on the column a equals to the value of the column b

Example Queries

    Use single quotes for literals and double quotes (optional) for identifiers (column names)
    If you name the columns as timestamp, date, or other reserved keywords, or the column name includes special characters, you need to use double quotes when you refer to them in the query.

Simple selection

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//default to limit 10
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SELECT * FROM myTable
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SELECT * FROM myTable LIMIT 100
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Aggregation

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SELECT COUNT(*), MAX(foo), SUM(bar) FROM myTable
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Grouping on Aggregation

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SELECT MIN(foo), MAX(foo), SUM(foo), AVG(foo), bar, baz FROM myTable
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GROUP BY bar, baz LIMIT 50
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Ordering on Aggregation

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SELECT MIN(foo), MAX(foo), SUM(foo), AVG(foo), bar, baz FROM myTable
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GROUP BY bar, baz
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ORDER BY bar, MAX(foo) DESC LIMIT 50
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Filtering

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SELECT COUNT(*) FROM myTable
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WHERE foo = 'foo'
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AND bar BETWEEN 1 AND 20
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OR (baz < 42 AND quux IN ('hello', 'goodbye') AND quuux NOT IN (42, 69))
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Filtering with NULL predicate

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SELECT COUNT(*) FROM myTable
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WHERE foo IS NOT NULL
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AND foo = 'foo'
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AND bar BETWEEN 1 AND 20
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OR (baz < 42 AND quux IN ('hello', 'goodbye') AND quuux NOT IN (42, 69))
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Selection (Projection)

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SELECT * FROM myTable
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WHERE quux < 5
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LIMIT 50
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Ordering on Selection

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SELECT foo, bar FROM myTable
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WHERE baz > 20
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ORDER BY bar DESC
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LIMIT 100
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Pagination on Selection

Note: results might not be consistent if column ordered by has same value in multiple rows.
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SELECT foo, bar FROM myTable
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WHERE baz > 20
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ORDER BY bar DESC
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LIMIT 50, 100
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Wild-card match (in WHERE clause only)

To count rows where the column airlineName starts with U
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SELECT COUNT(*) FROM myTable
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WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(airlineName, '^U.*')
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GROUP BY airlineName LIMIT 10
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Case-When Statement

Pinot supports the CASE-WHEN-ELSE statement.
Example 1:
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SELECT
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CASE
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WHEN price > 30 THEN 3
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WHEN price > 20 THEN 2
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WHEN price > 10 THEN 1
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ELSE 0
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END AS price_category
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FROM myTable
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Example 2:
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SELECT
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SUM(
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CASE
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WHEN price > 30 THEN 30
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WHEN price > 20 THEN 20
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WHEN price > 10 THEN 10
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ELSE 0
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END) AS total_cost
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FROM myTable
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UDF

As of now, functions have to be implemented within Pinot. Injecting functions is not allowed yet. The example below demonstrate the use of UDFs. More examples in Transform Function in Aggregation Grouping
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SELECT COUNT(*) FROM myTable
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GROUP BY DATETIME_CONVERT(timeColumnName, '1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH', '1:HOURS:EPOCH', '1:HOURS')
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BYTES column

Pinot supports queries on BYTES column using HEX string. The query response also uses hex string to represent bytes value.
E.g. the query below fetches all the rows for a given UID.
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SELECT * FROM myTable
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WHERE UID = 'c8b3bce0b378fc5ce8067fc271a34892'
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Last modified 9mo ago