Transformation Functions
This document contains the list of all the transformation functions supported by Pinot SQL.

Math Functions

Function
ADD(col1, col2, col3...) Sum of at least two values
SUB(col1, col2) Difference between two values
MULT(col1, col2, col3...) Product of at least two values
DIV(col1, col2) Quotient of two values
MOD(col1, col2) Modulo of two values
ABS(col1) Absolute of a value
CEIL(col1) Rounded up to the nearest integer.
FLOOR(col1) Rounded down to the nearest integer.
EXP(col1) Euler’s number(e) raised to the power of col.
LN(col1) Natural log of value i.e. ln(col1)
SQRT(col1) Square root of a value

String Functions

Multiple string functions are supported out of the box from release-0.5.0 .
Function
UPPER(col) convert string to upper case
LOWER(col) convert string to lower case
REVERSE(col) reverse the string
SUBSTR(col, startIndex, endIndex) Gets substring of the input string from start to endIndex. Index begins at 0. Set endIndex to -1 to calculate till end of the string
CONCAT(col1, col2, seperator) Concatenate two input strings using the seperator
TRIM(col) trim spaces from both side of the string
LTRIM(col) trim spaces from left side of the string
RTRIM(col) trim spaces from right side of the string
LENGTH(col) calculate length of the string
STRPOS(col, find, N) Find Nth instance of find string in input. Returns 0 if input string is empty. Returns -1 if the Nth instance is not found or input string is null.
STARTSWITH(col, prefix) returns true if columns starts with prefix string.
REPLACE(col, find, substitute) replace all instances of find with replace in input
RPAD(col, size, pad) string padded from the right side with pad to reach final size
LPAD(col, size, pad) string padded from the left side with pad to reach final size
CODEPOINT(col) the Unicode codepoint of the first character of the string
CHR(codepoint) the character corresponding to the Unicode codepoint
regexpExtract(value, regexp) Extracts values that match the provided regular expression
regexpReplace(input, matchRegexp, replaceRegexp, matchStartPos, occurrence, flag) Find and replace a string or regexp pattern with a target string or regexp pattern
remove(input, search) removes all instances of search from string
urlEncoding(string) url-encode a string with UTF-8 format
urlDecoding(string) decode a url to plaintext string
fromBase64(string) decode a Base64-encoded string to bytes represented as a hex string
toUtf8(string) decode a UTF8-encoded string to bytes represented as a hex string
## DateTime Functions
Date time functions allow you to perform transformations on columns that contain timestamps or dates.
Function
TIMECONVERT(col, fromUnit, toUnit) Converts the value into another time unit. the column should be an epoch timestamp.
DATETIMECONVERT(columnName, inputFormat, outputFormat, outputGranularity) Converts the value into another date time format, and buckets time based on the given time granularity.
DATETRUNC Converts the value into a specified output granularity seconds since UTC epoch that is bucketed on a unit in a specified timezone.
ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>(timeInMillis) Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>.
ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Rounded(timeInMillis, bucketSize) Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>, round to nearest rounding bucket(Bucket size is defined in <Time Unit>).
ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Bucket(timeInMillis, bucketSize) Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>, and divided by bucket size(Bucket size is defined in <Time Unit>).
FromEpoch<TIME_UNIT> Convert epoch <Time Unit> to epoch milliseconds.(timeIn<Time_UNIT>)
FromEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Bucket(timeIn<Time_UNIT>, bucketSizeIn<Time_UNIT>) Convert epoch <Bucket Size><Time Unit> to epoch milliseconds.
ToDateTime(timeInMillis, pattern[, timezoneId]) Convert epoch millis value to DateTime string represented by pattern.
FromDateTime(dateTimeString, pattern) Convert DateTime string represented by pattern to epoch millis.
round(timeValue, bucketSize) Round the given time value to nearest bucket start value.
now() Return current time as epoch millis
timezoneHour(timeZoneId) Returns the hour of the time zone offset.
timezoneMinute(timeZoneId) Returns the minute of the time zone offset.
year(tsInMillis) Returns the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone.
year(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id.
yearOfWeek(tsInMillis) Returns the year of the ISO week from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. Alias yowis also supported.
yearOfWeek(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the year of the ISO week from the given epoch millis and timezone id. Alias yowis also supported.
quarter(tsInMillis) Returns the quarter of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 4.
quarter(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the quarter of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 4.
month(tsInMillis) Returns the month of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 12.
month(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the month of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 12.
week(tsInMillis) Returns the ISO week of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 53. Alias weekOfYear is also supported.
week(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the ISO week of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 53. Alias weekOfYear is also supported.
dayOfYear(tsInMillis) Returns the day of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 366. Alias doy is also supported.
dayOfYear(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the day of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 366. Alias doy is also supported.
day(tsInMillis) Returns the day of the month from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 31. Alias dayOfMonth is also supported.
day(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the day of the month from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 31. Alias dayOfMonth is also supported.
dayOfWeek(tsInMillis) Returns the day of the week from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1(Monday) to 7(Sunday). Alias dow is also supported.
dayOfWeek(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the day of the week from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1(Monday) to 7(Sunday). Alias dow is also supported.
hour(tsInMillis) Returns the hour of the day from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 23.
hour(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the hour of the day from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 23.
minute(tsInMillis) Returns the minute of the hour from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 59.
minute(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the minute of the hour from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 59.
second(tsInMillis) Returns the second of the minute from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 59.
second(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the second of the minute from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 59.
millisecond(tsInMillis) Returns the millisecond of the second from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 999.
millisecond(tsInMillis, timeZoneId) Returns the millisecond of the second from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 999.

JSON Functions

Transform Functions

These functions can only be used in Pinot SQL queries.
Function
JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(jsonField, 'jsonPath', 'resultsType', [defaultValue]) Evaluates the 'jsonPath' on jsonField, returns the result as the type 'resultsType', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.
JSONEXTRACTKEY(jsonField, 'jsonPath') Extracts all matched JSON field keys based on 'jsonPath' into a STRING_ARRAY.
EXTRACT(dateTimeField FROM dateTimeExpression) Extracts the field from the DATETIME expression of the format 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS'. Currently this transformation function supports YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, and SECOND fields.

Scalar Functions

These functions can be used for column transformation in table ingestion configs.
Function
JSONFORMAT(object) Convert object to JSON String
JSONPATH(jsonField, 'jsonPath') Extracts the object value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', the result type is inferred based on JSON value. Cannot be used in query because data type is not specified.
JSONPATHLONG(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue]) Extracts the Long value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.
JSONPATHDOUBLE(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue]) Extracts the Double value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.
JSONPATHSTRING(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue]) Extracts the String value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.
JSONPATHARRAY(jsonField, 'jsonPath') Extracts an array from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', the result type is inferred based on JSON value. Cannot be used in query because data type is not specified.
JSONPATHARRAYDEFAULTEMPTY(jsonField, 'jsonPath') Extracts an array from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', the result type is inferred based on JSON value. Returns empty array for null or parsing error. Cannot be used in query because data type is not specified.

Binary Functions

Function
SHA(bytesCol) Return SHA-1 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string
SHA256(bytesCol) Return SHA-256 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string
SHA512(bytesCol) Return SHA-512 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string
MD5(bytesCol) Return MD5 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string
toBase64(bytesCol) Return the Base64-encoded string of binary column(bytes type)
fromUtf8(bytesCol) Return the UTF8-encoded string of binary column(bytes type)

Multi-value Column Functions

All of the functions mentioned till now only support single value columns. You can use the following functions to do operations on multi-value columns.
Function
ARRAYLENGTH Returns the length of a multi-value
MAP_VALUE Select the value for a key from Map stored in Pinot. MAP_VALUE(mapColumn, 'myKey', valueColumn)
VALUEIN The transform function will filter the value from the multi-valued column with the given constant values. The VALUEIN transform function is especially useful when the same multi-valued column is both filtering column and grouping column.

Advanced Queries

Geospatial Queries

Pinot supports Geospatial queries on columns containing text-based geographies. For more details on the queries and how to enable them, see Geospatial.

Text Queries

Pinot supports pattern matching on text-based columns. Only the columns mentioned as text columns in table config can be queried using this method. For more details on how to enable pattern matching, see Text search support.
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Outline
Math Functions
String Functions
JSON Functions
Transform Functions
Scalar Functions
Binary Functions
Multi-value Column Functions
Advanced Queries
Geospatial Queries
Text Queries