Supported Transformations

This document contains the list of all the transformation functions supported by Pinot SQ

Math Functions

Function

Description

Example

ADD(col1, col2, col3...)

Sum of at least two values

ADD(score_maths, score_science, score_history)

SUB(col1, col2)

Difference between two values

SUB(total_score, score_science)

MULT(col1, col2, col3...)

Product of at least two values

MUL(score_maths, score_science, score_history)

DIV(col1, col2)

Quotient of two values

SUB(total_score, total_subjects)

MOD(col1, col2)

Modulo of two values

MOD(total_score, total_subjects)

ABS(col1)

Absolute of a value

ABS(score)

CEIL(col1)

Rounded up to the nearest integer.

CEIL(percentage)

FLOOR(col1)

Rounded down to the nearest integer.

FLOOR(percentage)

EXP(col1)

Euler’s number(e) raised to the power of col.

EXP(age)

LN(col1)

Natural log of value i.e. ln(col1)

LN(age)

SQRT(col1)

Square root of a value

SQRT(height)

String Functions

Multiple string functions are supported out of the box from release-0.5.0 .

Function

Description

Example

UPPER(col)

convert string to upper case

UPPER(playerName)

LOWER(col)

convert string to lower case

LOWER(playerName)

REVERSE(col)

reverse the string

REVERSE(playerName)

SUBSTR(col, startIndex, endIndex)

get substring of the input string from start to endIndex. Index begins at 0. Set endIndex to -1 to calculate till end of the string

SUBSTR(playerName, 1, -1)

<code></code>

SUBSTR(playerName, 1, 4)

CONCAT(col1, col2, seperator)

Concatenate two input strings using the seperator

CONCAT(firstName, lastName, '-')

TRIM(col)

trim spaces from both side of the string

TRIM(playerName)

LTRIM(col)

trim spaces from left side of the string

LTRIM(playerName)

RTRIM(col)

trim spaces from right side of the string

RTRIM(playerName)

LENGTH(col)

calculate length of the string

LENGTH(playerName)

STRPOS(col, find, N)

find Nth instance of find string in input. Returns 0 if input string is empty. Returns -1 if the Nth instance is not found or input string is null.

STRPOS(playerName, 'david', 1)

STARTSWITH(col, prefix)

returns true if columns starts with prefix string.

STARTSWITH(playerName, 'david')

REPLACE(col, find, substitute)

replace all instances of find with replace in input

REPLACE(playerName, 'david', 'henry')

RPAD(col, size, pad)

string padded from the right side with pad to reach final size

RPAD(playerName, 20, 'foo')

LPAD(col, size, pad)

string padded from the left side with pad to reach final size

LPAD(playerName, 20, 'foo')

CODEPOINT(col)

the Unicode codepoint of the first character of the string

CODEPOINT(playerName)

CHR(codepoint)

the character corresponding to the Unicode codepoint

CHR(68)

DateTime Functions

Date time functions allow you to perform transformations on columns which contains timestamps or date.

Function

Description

Example

TIMECONVERT

(col, fromUnit, toUnit)

Converts the value into another time unit. the column should be an epoch timestamp. Supported units are DAYS HOURS MINUTES SECONDS MILLISECONDS MICROSECONDS NANOSECONDS

TIMECONVERT(time, 'MILLISECONDS', 'SECONDS')This expression converts the value of column time (taken to be in milliseconds) to the nearest seconds (i.e. the nearest seconds that is lower than the value of date column)

DATETIMECONVERT

(columnName, inputFormat, outputFormat, outputGranularity)

Takes 4 arguments, converts the value into another date time format, and buckets time based on the given time granularity. Note that, for weeks/months/quarters/years, please use function: DateTrunc.

The format is expressed as <time size>:<time unit>:<time format>:<pattern> where,

time size - size of the time unit eg: 1, 10

time unit - DAYS HOURS MINUTES SECONDS MILLISECONDS MICROSECONDS NANOSECONDS

time format - EPOCH or SIMPLE_DATE_FORMAT

pattern - this is defined in case of SIMPLE_DATE_FORMAT eg: yyyy-MM-dd. A specific timezone can be passed using tz(timezone). Timezone can be long or short string format timezone. e.g. Asia/Kolkata or PDT

granularity - specified in the format<time size>:<time unit>

  • Date from hoursSinceEpoch to daysSinceEpoch and bucket it to 1 day granularity DATETIMECONVERT(Date, '1:HOURS:EPOCH', '1:DAYS:EPOCH', '1:DAYS')

  • Date to 15 minutes granularity DATETIMECONVERT(Date, '1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH', '1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH', '15:MINUTES')

  • Date from hoursSinceEpoch to format yyyyMdd and bucket it to 1 days granularity DATETIMECONVERT(Date, '1:HOURS:EPOCH', '1:DAYS:SIMPLE_DATE_FORMAT:yyyyMMdd', '1:DAYS')

  • Date from milliseconds to format yyyyMdd in timezone PST DATETIMECONVERT(Date, '1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH', '1:DAYS:SIMPLE_DATE_FORMAT:yyyyMMdd tz(America/Los_Angeles)', '1:DAYS')

DATETRUNC

(Presto) SQL compatible date truncation, equivalent to the Presto function date_trunc.

Takes at least 3 and upto 5 arguments, converts the value into a specified output granularity seconds since UTC epoch that is bucketed on a unit in a specified timezone.

DATETRUNC('week', time_in_seconds, 'SECONDS') This expression converts the column time_in_seconds, which is a long containing seconds since UTC epoch truncated at WEEK (where a Week starts at Monday UTC midnight). The output is a long seconds since UTC epoch.

DATETRUNC('quarter', DIV(time_milliseconds/1000), 'SECONDS', 'America/Los_Angeles', 'HOURS') This expression converts the expression time_in_milliseconds/1000into hours that are truncated to QUARTER at the Los Angeles time zone (where a Quarter begins on 1/1, 4/1, 7/1, 10/1 in Los Angeles timezone). The output is expressed as hours since UTC epoch (note that the output is not Los Angeles timezone)

ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>(timeInMillis)

Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>. Supported <Time Unit>: SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS

Examples:

ToEpochSeconds(tsInMillis):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch seconds.

ToEpochDays(tsInMillis):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch days.

ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Rounded(timeInMillis, bucketSize)

Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>, round to nearest rounding bucket(Bucket size is defined in <Time Unit>). Supported <Time Unit>: SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS

Examples:

ToEpochSecondsRound(tsInMillis, 10):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch seconds and round to the 10-minute bucket value. E.g.ToEpochSecondsRound(1613472303000, 10) = 1613472300

ToEpochMinutesRound(tsInMillis, 1440):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch Minutes, but round to 1-day bucket value. E.g.ToEpochMinutesRound(1613472303000, 1440) = 26890560

ToEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Bucket(timeInMillis, bucketSize)

Convert epoch milliseconds to epoch <Time Unit>, and divided by bucket size(Bucket size is defined in <Time Unit>). Supported <Time Unit>: SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS

Examples:

ToEpochSecondsBucket(tsInMillis, 10):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch seconds then divide by 10 to get the 10 seconds since epoch value. E.g.

ToEpochSecondsBucket(1613472303000, 10) = 161347230

ToEpochHoursBucket(tsInMillis, 24):Converts column tsInMillis value from epoch milliseconds to epoch Hours, then divide by 24 to get 24 hours since epoch value. E.g.ToEpochMinutesBucket(1613472303000, 1440) = 18674

FromEpoch<TIME_UNIT>(timeIn<Time_UNIT>)

Convert epoch <Time Unit> to epoch milliseconds. Supported <Time Unit>: SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS

Examples:

FromEpochSeconds(tsInSeconds):Converts column tsInSeconds value from epoch seconds to epoch milliseconds. E.g.

FromEpochSeconds(1613472303) = 1613472303000

FromEpoch<TIME_UNIT>Bucket(timeIn<Time_UNIT>, bucketSizeIn<Time_UNIT>)

Convert epoch <Bucket Size><Time Unit> to epoch milliseconds. E.g. 10 seconds since epoch or 5 minutes since Epoch. Supported <Time Unit>: SECONDS/MINUTES/HOURS/DAYS

Examples:

FromEpochSecondsBucket(tsInSeconds, 10):Converts column tsInSeconds value from epoch 10-seconds to epoch milliseconds. E.g.

FromEpochSeconds(161347231)= 1613472310000

ToDateTime(timeInMillis, pattern)

Convert epoch millis value to DateTime string represented by pattern.

Example: ToDateTime(tsInMillis, 'yyyy-MM-dd')converts tsInMillis value to date time pattern yyyy-MM-dd

FromDateTime(dateTimeString, pattern)

Convert DateTime string represented by pattern to epoch millis.

Example: FromDateTime(dateTime, 'yyyy-MM-dd')converts dateTime string value to millis epoch value

round(timeValue, bucketSize)

Round the given time value to nearest bucket start value.

Example: round(tsInSeconds, 60) round seconds epoch value to the start value of the 60 seconds bucket it belongs to. E.g. round(161347231, 60)= 161347200

now()

Return current time as epoch millis

Typically used in predicate to filter on timestamp for recent data. E.g. filter data on recent 1 day(86400 seconds).WHERE tsInMillis > now() - 86400000

timezoneHour(timeZoneId)

Returns the hour of the time zone offset.

timezoneMinute(timeZoneId)

Returns the minute of the time zone offset.

year(tsInMillis)

Returns the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone.

year(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id.

yearOfWeek(tsInMillis)

Returns the year of the ISO week from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. Alias yowis also supported.

yearOfWeek(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the year of the ISO week from the given epoch millis and timezone id. Alias yowis also supported.

quarter(tsInMillis)

Returns the quarter of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 4.

quarter(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the quarter of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 4.

month(tsInMillis)

Returns the month of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 12.

month(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the month of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 12.

week(tsInMillis)

Returns the ISO week of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 53. Alias weekOfYear is also supported.

week(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the ISO week of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 53. Alias weekOfYear is also supported.

dayOfYear(tsInMillis)

Returns the day of the year from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 366. Alias doy is also supported.

dayOfYear(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the day of the year from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 366. Alias doy is also supported.

day(tsInMillis)

Returns the day of the month from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1 to 31. Alias dayOfMonth is also supported.

day(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the day of the month from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1 to 31. Alias dayOfMonth is also supported.

dayOfWeek(tsInMillis)

Returns the day of the week from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 1(Monday) to 7(Sunday). Alias dow is also supported.

dayOfWeek(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the day of the week from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 1(Monday) to 7(Sunday). Alias dow is also supported.

hour(tsInMillis)

Returns the hour of the day from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 23.

hour(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the hour of the day from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 23.

minute(tsInMillis)

Returns the minute of the hour from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 59.

minute(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the minute of the hour from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 59.

second(tsInMillis)

Returns the second of the minute from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 59.

second(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the second of the minute from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 59.

millisecond(tsInMillis)

Returns the millisecond of the second from the given epoch millis in UTC timezone. The value ranges from 0 to 999.

millisecond(tsInMillis, timeZoneId)

Returns the millisecond of the second from the given epoch millis and timezone id. The value ranges from 0 to 999.

JSON Functions

Function

Type

Description

JSONEXTRACTSCALAR

(jsonField, 'jsonPath', 'resultsType')

Transform

Evaluates the 'jsonPath' on jsonField,

returns the result as the type 'resultsType'.

JSONEXTRACTKEY

(jsonField, 'jsonPath')

Transform

Extracts all matched JSON field keys based on 'jsonPath'

Into aSTRING_ARRAY.

TOJSONMAPSTR(map)

Scalar

Convert map to JSON String

JSONFORMAT(object)

Scalar

Convert object to JSON String

JSONPATH(jsonField, 'jsonPath')

Scalar

Extracts the object value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', the result type is inferred based on JSON value.

JSONPATHLONG(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue])

Scalar

Extracts the Long value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.

JSONPATHDOUBLE(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue])

Scalar

Extracts the Double value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.

JSONPATHSTRING(jsonField, 'jsonPath', [defaultValue])

Scalar

Extracts the String value from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', use optional defaultValuefor null or parsing error.

JSONPATHARRAY(jsonField, 'jsonPath')

Scalar

Extracts an array from jsonField based on 'jsonPath', the result type is inferred based on JSON value.

Usage

Arguments

Description

jsonField

An Identifier/Expression contains JSON documents.

'jsonPath'

Follows JsonPath Syntax to read values from JSON documents.

'results_type'

One of the Pinot supported data types:INT, LONG, FLOAT, DOUBLE, STRING,

INT_ARRAY, LONG_ARRAY, FLOAT_ARRAY, DOUBLE_ARRAY, STRING_ARRAY.

'jsonPath'and'results_type'are Literals. Pinot uses single quotes to distinguish it from Identifiers.

Transform functions can only be used in Pinot SQL. Scalar functions can be used in table ingestion configs for column transformation.

E.g:

  • JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(profile_json_str, '$.name', 'STRING') is Valid.

  • JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(profile_json_str, "$.name", "STRING") is Invalid.

Examples

Below examples are based on 3 sample profile JSON documents:

{
"name" : "Bob",
"age" : 37,
"gender": "male",
"location": "San Francisco"
},{
"name" : "Alice",
"age" : 25,
"gender": "female",
"location": "New York"
},{
"name" : "Mia",
"age" : 18,
"gender": "female",
"location": "Chicago"
}

Query 1: Extract string values from the field 'name'

SELECT
JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(profile_json_str, '$.name', 'STRING')
FROM
myTable

Results are

["Bob", "Alice", "Mia"]

Query 2: Extract integer values from the field 'age'

SELECT
JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(profile_json_str, '$.age', 'INT')
FROM
myTable

Results are

[37, 25, 18]

Query 3: Extract Bob's age from the JSON profile.

SELECT
JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(myMapStr,'$.age','INT')
FROM
myTable
WHERE
JSONEXTRACTSCALAR(myMapStr,'$.name','STRING') = 'Bob'

Results are

[37]

Query 4: Extract all field keys of JSON profile.

SELECT
JSONEXTRACTKEY(myMapStr,'$.*')
FROM
myTable

Results are

["name", "age", "gender", "location"]

Another example of extracting JSON fields from below JSON record:

{
"name": "Pete",
"age": 24,
"subjects": [{
"name": "maths",
"homework_grades": [80, 85, 90, 95, 100],
"grade": "A",
"score": 90
},
{
"name": "english",
"homework_grades": [60, 65, 70, 85, 90],
"grade": "B",
"score": 70
}
]
}

Extract JSON fields:

Expression

Value

JSONPATH(myJsonRecord, '$.name')

"Pete"

JSONPATH(myJsonRecord, '$.age')

24

JSONPATHSTRING(myJsonRecord, '$.age')

"24"

JSONPATHARRAY(myJsonRecord, '$.subjects[*].name')

["maths", "english"]

JSONPATHARRAY(myJsonRecord, '$.subjects[*].score')

[90, 70]

JSONPATHARRAY(myJsonRecord, '$.subjects[*].homework_grades[1]')

[85, 65]

Binary Functions

Function

Description

Example

SHA(bytesCol)

Return SHA-1 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string

SHA(rawData)

SHA256(bytesCol)

Return SHA-256 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string

SHA256(rawData)

SHA512(bytesCol)

Return SHA-512 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string

SHA512(rawData)

MD5(bytesCol)

Return MD5 digest of binary column(bytes type) as hex string

MD5(rawData)

Multi-value Column Functions

All of the functions mentioned till now only support single value columns. You can use the following functions to do operations on multi-value columns.

Function

Description

Example

ARRAYLENGTH

Returns the length of a multi-value column

MAP_VALUE

Select the value for a key from Map stored in Pinot.

MAP_VALUE(mapColumn, 'myKey', valueColumn)

VALUEIN

Takes at least 2 arguments, where the first argument is a multi-valued column, and the following arguments are constant values. The transform function will filter the value from the multi-valued column with the given constant values. The VALUEIN transform function is especially useful when the same multi-valued column is both filtering column and grouping column.

VALUEIN(mvColumn, 3, 5, 15)

Advanced Queries

Geospatial Queries

Pinot supports Geospatial queries on columns containing text-based geographies. Check out Geospatial for more details on the queries and how to enable them.

Text Queries

Pinot supports Pattern matching on text-based columns as well. Only the columns mentioned as text columns in table config can be queried using this method. Check out Text search support for more details on how to enable pattern matching.