Batch Ingestion

Batch ingestion of data into Apache Pinot.

With batch ingestion you create a table using data already present in a file system such as S3. This is particularly useful when you want to use Pinot to query across large data with minimal latency or to test out new features using a simple data file.

To ingest data from a filesystem, perform the following steps, which are described in more detail in this page:

  1. Create schema configuration

  2. Create table configuration

  3. Upload schema and table configs

  4. Upload data

Batch ingestion currently supports the following mechanisms to upload the data:

Here's an example using standalone local processing.

First, create a table using the following CSV data.


Create schema configuration

In our data, the only column on which aggregations can be performed is score. Secondly, timestampInEpoch is the only timestamp column. So, on our schema, we keep score as metric and timestampInEpoch as timestamp column.

  "schemaName": "transcript",
  "dimensionFieldSpecs": [
      "name": "studentID",
      "dataType": "INT"
      "name": "firstName",
      "dataType": "STRING"
      "name": "lastName",
      "dataType": "STRING"
      "name": "gender",
      "dataType": "STRING"
      "name": "subject",
      "dataType": "STRING"
  "metricFieldSpecs": [
      "name": "score",
      "dataType": "FLOAT"
  "dateTimeFieldSpecs": [{
    "name": "timestampInEpoch",
    "dataType": "LONG",
    "format" : "1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH",
    "granularity": "1:MILLISECONDS"

Here, we have also defined two extra fields: format and granularity. The format specifies the formatting of our timestamp column in the data source. Currently, it's in milliseconds, so we've specified 1:MILLISECONDS:EPOCH.

Create table configuration

We define a table transcript and map the schema created in the previous step to the table. For batch data, we keep the tableType as OFFLINE.

  "tableName": "transcript",
  "tableType": "OFFLINE",
  "segmentsConfig": {
    "replication": 1,
    "timeColumnName": "timestampInEpoch",
    "timeType": "MILLISECONDS",
    "retentionTimeUnit": "DAYS",
    "retentionTimeValue": 365
  "tenants": {
  "tableIndexConfig": {
    "loadMode": "MMAP"
  "ingestionConfig": {
    "batchIngestionConfig": {
      "segmentIngestionType": "APPEND",
      "segmentIngestionFrequency": "DAILY"
    "continueOnError": true,
    "rowTimeValueCheck": true,
    "segmentTimeValueCheck": false

  "metadata": {}

Upload schema and table configs

Now that we have both the configs, upload them and create a table by running the following command:

bin/ AddTable \\
  -tableConfigFile /path/to/table-config.json \\
  -schemaFile /path/to/table-schema.json -exec

Check out the table config and schema in the \[Rest API] to make sure it was successfully uploaded.

Upload data

We now have an empty table in Pinot. Next, upload the CSV file to this empty table.

A table is composed of multiple segments. The segments can be created in the following three ways:

  • Minion based ingestion\

  • Upload API\

  • Ingestion jobs

Minion-based ingestion

Refer to SegmentGenerationAndPushTask

Upload API

There are 2 controller APIs that can be used for a quick ingestion test using a small file.

When these APIs are invoked, the controller has to download the file and build the segment locally.

Hence, these APIs are NOT meant for production environments and for large input files.


This API creates a segment using the given file and pushes it to Pinot. All steps happen on the controller.

Example usage:

To upload a JSON file data.json to a table called foo_OFFLINE, use below command

Note that query params need to be URLEncoded. For example, {"inputFormat":"json"} in the command below needs to be converted to %7B%22inputFormat%22%3A%22json%22%7D.

curl -X POST -F file=@data.json \
  -H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data" \

The batchConfigMapStr can be used to pass in additional properties needed for decoding the file. For example, in case of csv, you may need to provide the delimiter

curl -X POST -F file=@data.csv \
  -H "Content-Type: multipart/form-data" \


This API creates a segment using file at the given URI and pushes it to Pinot. Properties to access the FS need to be provided in the batchConfigMap. All steps happen on the controller. Example usage:

curl -X POST "http://localhost:9000/ingestFromURI?tableNameWithType=foo_OFFLINE

Ingestion jobs

Segments can be created and uploaded using tasks known as DataIngestionJobs. A job also needs a config of its own. We call this config the JobSpec.

For our CSV file and table, the JobSpec should look like this:

  name: 'standalone'
  segmentGenerationJobRunnerClassName: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.ingestion.batch.standalone.SegmentGenerationJobRunner'
  segmentTarPushJobRunnerClassName: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.ingestion.batch.standalone.SegmentTarPushJobRunner'
  segmentUriPushJobRunnerClassName: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.ingestion.batch.standalone.SegmentUriPushJobRunner'
  segmentMetadataPushJobRunnerClassName: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.ingestion.batch.standalone.SegmentMetadataPushJobRunner'

# Recommended to set jobType to SegmentCreationAndMetadataPush for production environment where Pinot Deep Store is configured  
jobType: SegmentCreationAndTarPush

inputDirURI: '/tmp/pinot-quick-start/rawdata/'
includeFileNamePattern: 'glob:**/*.csv'
outputDirURI: '/tmp/pinot-quick-start/segments/'
overwriteOutput: true
  - scheme: file
    className: org.apache.pinot.spi.filesystem.LocalPinotFS
  dataFormat: 'csv'
  className: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.inputformat.csv.CSVRecordReader'
  configClassName: 'org.apache.pinot.plugin.inputformat.csv.CSVRecordReaderConfig'
  tableName: 'transcript'
  - controllerURI: 'http://localhost:9000'
  pushAttempts: 2
  pushRetryIntervalMillis: 1000

For more detail, refer to Ingestion job spec.

Now that we have the job spec for our table transcript, we can trigger the job using the following command:

bin/ LaunchDataIngestionJob \\
    -jobSpecFile /tmp/pinot-quick-start/batch-job-spec.yaml

Once the job successfully finishes, head over to the \[query console] and start playing with the data.

Segment push job type

There are 3 ways to upload a Pinot segment:

  • Segment tar push

  • Segment URI push

  • Segment metadata push

Segment tar push

This is the original and default push mechanism.

Tar push requires the segment to be stored locally or can be opened as an InputStream on PinotFS. So we can stream the entire segment tar file to the controller.

The push job will:

  1. Upload the entire segment tar file to the Pinot controller.

Pinot controller will:

  1. Save the segment into the controller segment directory(Local or any PinotFS).

  2. Extract segment metadata.

  3. Add the segment to the table.

Segment URI push

This push mechanism requires the segment tar file stored on a deep store with a globally accessible segment tar URI.

URI push is light-weight on the client-side, and the controller side requires equivalent work as the tar push.

The push job will:

  1. POST this segment tar URI to the Pinot controller.

Pinot controller will:

  1. Download segment from the URI and save it to controller segment directory (local or any PinotFS).

  2. Extract segment metadata.

  3. Add the segment to the table.

Segment metadata push

This push mechanism also requires the segment tar file stored on a deep store with a globally accessible segment tar URI.

Metadata push is light-weight on the controller side, there is no deep store download involves from the controller side.

The push job will:

  1. Download the segment based on URI.

  2. Extract metadata.

  3. Upload metadata to the Pinot Controller.

Pinot Controller will:

  1. Add the segment to the table based on the metadata.

4. Segment Metadata Push with copyToDeepStore

This extends the original Segment Metadata Push for cases, where the segments are pushed to a location not used as deep store. The ingestion job can still do metadata push but ask Pinot Controller to copy the segments into deep store. Those use cases usually happen when the ingestion jobs don't have direct access to deep store but still want to use metadata push for its efficiency, thus using a staging location to keep the segments temporarily.

NOTE: the staging location and deep store have to use same storage scheme, like both on s3. This is because the copy is done via PinotFS.copyDir interface that assumes so; but also because this does copy at storage system side, so segments don't need to go through Pinot Controller at all.

To make this work, grant Pinot controllers access to the staging location. For example on AWS, this may require adding an access policy like this example for the controller EC2 instances:

    "Version": "2012-10-17",
    "Statement": [
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "s3:ListAllMyBuckets",
            "Resource": "*"
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": "s3:*",
            "Resource": [

Then use metadata push to add one extra config like this one:

jobType: SegmentCreationAndMetadataPush
outputDirURI: 's3://metadata-push-staging/stagingDir/'
  copyToDeepStoreForMetadataPush: true

Consistent data push and rollback

Pinot supports atomic update on segment level, which means that when data consisting of multiple segments are pushed to a table, as segments are replaced one at a time, queries to the broker during this upload phase may produce inconsistent results due to interleaving of old and new data.

See Consistent Push and Rollback for how to enable this feature.

Segment fetchers

When Pinot segment files are created in external systems (Hadoop/spark/etc), there are several ways to push those data to the Pinot controller and server:

  1. Push segment to shared NFS and let pinot pull segment files from the location of that NFS. See Segment URI Push.

  2. Push segment to a Web server and let pinot pull segment files from the Web server with HTTP/HTTPS link. See Segment URI Push.

  3. Push segment to PinotFS(HDFS/S3/GCS/ADLS) and let pinot pull segment files from PinotFS URI. See Segment URI Push and Segment Metadata Push.

  4. Push segment to other systems and implement your own segment fetcher to pull data from those systems.

The first three options are supported out of the box within the Pinot package. As long your remote jobs send Pinot controller with the corresponding URI to the files, it will pick up the file and allocate it to proper Pinot servers and brokers. To enable Pinot support for PinotFS, you'll need to provide PinotFS configuration and proper Hadoop dependencies.


By default, Pinot does not come with a storage layer, so all the data sent, won't be stored in case of a system crash. In order to persistently store the generated segments, you will need to change controller and server configs to add deep storage. Checkout File systems for all the info and related configs.



Since pinot is written in Java, you can set the following basic Java configurations to tune the segment runner job -

  • Log4j2 file location with -Dlog4j2.configurationFile

  • Plugin directory location with -Dplugins.dir=/opt/pinot/plugins

  • JVM props, like -Xmx8g -Xms4G

If you are using the docker, you can set the following under JAVA_OPTS variable.


You can set -D to set the mapper memory size when submitting the Hadoop job.


You can add config spark.executor.memory to tune the memory usage for segment creation when submitting the Spark job.

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